Arizona Republicans recently appeared before a panel of three judges in federal court to press for realignment of the state's legislative districts. The 30 districts crafted by the Independent Redistricting Commission have population disparities. The argument is that the commission expressly pushed as many Republicans as possible into districts, creating an unfair, illegal advantage for the Democrats to place their candidates in the legislature.

While the commission's lawyers do not dispute the population imbalance, Ballard Spahr partner Joseph A. Kanefield says a disparity of less than 10 percent among the districts is "presumptively constitutional" unless challengers can prove that the basis for those differences is irrational or illegal.

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