Additional questions concerning the applicability of AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion to representative actions arose this week when a California intermediate court of appeals ruled that claims under the state's Private Attorneys General Act (PAGA) are not subject to individual arbitration. This decision magnifies a split among the California courts on this issue that will likely remain until the state Supreme Court, and perhaps U.S. Supreme Court, issues a definitive decision.

The panel decision in Brown v. Superior Court "part[s] company" with an earlier ruling of the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California. The district court had concluded that exempting PAGA claims from arbitration would violate the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). The same issue is also pending before the California Supreme Court in Iskanian v. CLS Transportation of Los Angeles.

The PAGA statute allows an aggrieved employee to bring a civil action on behalf of himself or herself and other current or former employees for labor code violations. At issue is whether an employer can enforce an arbitration agreement that prohibits class or other representative actions in arbitration when an employee brings a PAGA claim.

The panel in Brown held that enforcing the arbitration agreement would violate California public policy. It noted in its analysis that a PAGA claim is a non-waivable statutory claim that provides a public remedy, and such a remedy cannot be effectuated if an arbitrator is precluded from awarding class or representative relief. The panel distinguished Concepcion on the ground that it dealt with private party class actions, not with public rights.

The courts disagreeing with Brown's analysis hold that the FAA contains no exception for PAGA claims. They reason that under Concepcion, arbitration agreements must be enforced as written, and states lack the power to exempt claims from the FAA on public policy grounds. Concepcion held that "[s]tates cannot require a procedure that is inconsistent with the FAA, even if it is desirable for unrelated reasons."

We disagree with the reasoning in Brown and constantly monitor developments in arbitration law to provide our clients with current advice for drafting and enforcing arbitration agreements.

Ballard Spahr’s Consumer Financial Services Group pioneered the use of pre-dispute arbitration provisions in consumer financial services agreements. It is nationally recognized for its guidance in structuring and documenting new consumer financial services products, its experience with the full range of federal and state consumer credit laws, and its skill in litigation defense and avoidance. The firm’s Labor and Employment Group has substantial experience developing employment arbitration programs and agreements, and litigating the enforceability of arbitration provisions.

The CFS Group also produces CFPB Monitor, a blog that focuses exclusively on important Consumer Financial Protection Bureau developments. To subscribe to the blog, use the link provided to the right.

For more information, please contact CFS Practice Leader Alan S. Kaplinsky at 215.864.8544 or, Labor and Employment Practice Leader David S. Fryman at 215.864.8105 or, or Mark J. Levin at 215.864.8235 or

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This alert is a periodic publication of Ballard Spahr LLP and is intended to notify recipients of new developments in the law. It should not be construed as legal advice or legal opinion on any specific facts or circumstances. The contents are intended for general informational purposes only, and you are urged to consult your own attorney concerning your situation and specific legal questions you have.

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